CHAPTER :ENERGY AND IRRIGATION RESOURCES IN HARYANA
Energy is a critical factor in infrastructure for sustained economic growth. It makes a direct and significant contribution to economy in terms of revenue generation and providing irrigation facilities for Haryana. The state has a dense network of canals that form the major type of irrigation in Haryana. Apart from canals other means of irrigation are tubewells, wells, lakes and ponds.
Haryana state has limited availability of energy sources. There is very less hydro generation potential in the state. Even the coal mines are located far away from the state. There is very limited forest area. Wind velocity prevailing in the state is also not sufficient to exploit power generation. Although, the solar intensity is relatively high but due to limited land area solar energy cannot be harnessed on big scale.
The state depends on the limited thermal generation capacity and hydro power from the jointly owned projects running in the state. As per Economic Survey 2018-19, the total installed capacity of the state is 11,700.72 MW. Out of this, 2792.4 MW is generated from states own stations, 846.14 MW is generated from jointly owned projects and the remaining is generated by central and independent power projects.
Haryana is the first state in the country to link all its villages with electricity from November 1970. The per capita consumption of electricity increased from 57 units in 1967-68 to 1628 units in 2015-16. The consumption of electricity by the Industrial sector was maximum followed by agriculture sector. The sources of energy in Haryana are divided into conventional resources and non-conventional resources of energy.
Conventional Resources of Energy
The conventional resources of energy include. Thermal power and Hydro power.
These resources are discussed below:
Thermal Power Plants in Haryana
The state has a few thermal power plants that are as followed:
Faridabad Thermal Power Plant
It is located in Faridabad district of Haryana, about 30 km South of Delhi. It has a total installed capacity of 180 MW comprising 3 Units of 60 MW each which were commissioned in 1974,1976 and 1981.
Panipat Thermal Power Station
It is the biggest power station of Haryana located in the district of Panipat. It was established on 1st November, 1979. It has a total installed generation capacity of 1360 MW comprising of four units of 110 MW each, two units of 210 MW each and two units of 250 MW each.
Note : In order to improve the performance of the plant and to have better control, Panipat Thermal Power Station (PTPS) was bifurcated into the thermal power stations i.e. PTPS-1 and PTPS-2.
Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram Thermal Power Plant
It is located in Yamunanagar district of Haryana. It was established on 14th April, 2008. It has an installed capacity of 600 MW. This power plant is one of the coal based power plants of HPGCL. It was jointly constructed by Reliance Energy Limited and Shanghai Electric (China). The coal is supplied by central coalfields.
Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Project
It is located in Hisar district of Haryana. It was established 24th August, 2010. It has a total installed capacity of 1200 MW. It gets coal from Mahanadi Coalfield Limited (Odisha).
Indira Gandhi Sup er Thermal Power Project
It is located in Jhajjar district. It was established on 4th March, 2011. The project is executed by National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) from concept to commissioning and subsequent operation and maintenance in joint venture with Indraprastha Power Generation Company Limited (IPGCC) and Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited (HPGCL). It has a total installed capacity of 1500 MW. It is also known as Aravalli Super Thermal Power Project as it is maintained by Aravalli Power Company Private Limited. It gets coal from Mahanadi Coalfield Limited.
Mahatma Gandhi Thermal Power Project
It is located at village Khanpur, district Jhajjar. It was established on 19th July, 2012. It has a total installed capacity of 1,320 MW (2 x 660 MW). It is the first coal-based power generation project set up by an independent power producer in the state. It is one of India’s first plants that uses supercritical technology. Which helps increase the energy efficiency. The plant has made a voluntary decision of installing Flue Gas Desulphurisation to further minimise the environmental impact of the operations.
Hydro Power Plants
There are very few rivers in Haryana due to which there is very little scope of hydro electricity in the state. At present it has two projects running on hydroelectricity.
These are as follows:
Western Yamuna Canal Hydel Project
This project is located on Western side of Yamuna river in between Hathnikund and Dadupur in Yamunanagar district of Haryana. Hathnikund is a barrage built on Yamuna river. It was established in 1980. It has total installed capacity of 62.7 MW.
Kakroi Micro Hydel Project
This project with ultra low head (1.9 m) is located on Western Yamuna Canal (Delhi branch) at village Kakroi near Sonipat. It has a total installed capacity of 400 KW comprising 4 units of 100 KW each. This project is under the control of HPGCL, Yamunanagar from 1st June, 1999.
Non-Conventional Resources of Energy
The non-conventional energy resources include nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy and bio energy. These are discussed below:
The first Nuclear Power Plant in Haryana has been set-up in village of Gorakhpur of Fatehabad district on 13th January, 2014. It has a total installed capacity of 2800 MW. It was set up by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) Other plants has also been set up at Bhiwani and Hisar.
The first solar power plant in Haryana was set up at Nandpa village in Charkhi Dadri district. Solar power plant at Budh Kalan in Yamunanagar district has been set up by Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited. The solar insolation level in the state is in the range of 5.5 kW to 6.5 kW per sq m of area and the state has about 320 clear sunny days in a year.
This offers a great potential for using solar energy for various thermal and electrical energy applications in the state. In line of it government has launched scheme named as “Manohar Jyoti” to provide 1,00,000 nos. of solar based home system to meet domestic energy needs of public in phased manner. Government has also launched a training programme called ‘SURYAMITRA to develop skilled manpower in the field of renewable energy with special focus on solar.
Haryana Solar Power Policy, 2016
The Government of Haryana has formulated Haryana Solar Power Policy, 2016 to promote the generation of power from solar energy.
The main objectives of this policy are:
- To promote generation of green and clean power in the state using solar energy, many awards are announced.
- To create conditions conducive to the participation of private and public sector in setting up solar energy-based power projects in the state.
- To provide subsidy for setting up of rooftop solar power plants.
- Decentralisation and diversification of the energy portfolio and to increase the share of renewable solar power.
- To put in place an appropriate investment that would leverage the benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and result in lower Green House Gas (GHG) emissions.
In Haryana, sufficient untapped wind energy power potential is available, specifically in the Morni hill area of district Panchkula and Aravalli hills in Southern Haryana. Wind Monitoring Stations has been set up in Panchkula, Gurugram and Mahendragarh districts to assess the available wind potential for power generation in the state.
Haryana has a potential to develop bio fuel due to agricultural residue, specially in the districts of Sirsa, Hisar, Bhiwani, Jind and Kaithal, where agriculture is the main activity. The first bio gas plant was established in 1991 at Dikadla in Panipat district. According to Department of Renewable Energy, Government of Haryana, the state has 112 bio gas plants.
During 2017-18, one 25 MW biomass cogeneration project has been commissioned in Ambala district. The State Government has also decided to promote paddy straw based power projects. In the first phase, projects of about 50 MW capacities shall be set up in six districts namely Karnal, Kurukshetra, Fatehabad, Jind, Kaithal and Ambala.
Renewable Energy Policy, 2005
The objectives of Renewable Energy Policy, 2005 are:
- To create conditions conducive for the involvement of private sector or public-private sector participation in renewable energy sources-based power projects in the state.
- It aims to achieve a minimum of 10% (i.e. 500 MW) of the total capacity addition of 5000 MW of conventional power to be generated through Renewable Energy Power Projects by 2012 as per Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources, Government of India’s Policy.
- To promote setting up of Biomass Based Power Projects.
- To promote Co-generation Power Projects.
- To promote Small Hydro Power Projects.
- To promote Wind Energy Based Power Projects.
- To promote Solar Energy Based Power Projects.
- To promote Waste to Energy Power Projects based on Urban, Municipal and Industrial Waste.
Haryana Renewable Energy Development Agency (HAREDA)
It is the State Nodal Agency for coordinating all activities relating to renewable energy development including generation of power using non-conventional energy sources. HAREDA is responsible for laying down the procedure for inviting the proposals from Independent Power Producers (IPPs), DPR preparation, evaluation of project proposals, project approvals and project progress monitoring, etc. It functions as a single window clearing agency for all Renewable Energy Power Projects for facilitating necessary clearances and approvals on behalf of the Government of Haryana.
Government Initiatives for Conservation of Energy
Some initiatives for the production, distribution conservation and growth of renewable sources of energy taken by Haryana Government are as follows:
- The state is setting up solar parks. The first solar park is set up in Gurugram i.e. Rajiv Gandhi Solar Energy Park.
- A solar park is also set up at Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya at Naulatha, Panipat.
- 9 engineering colleges and energy clubs are also set up to encourage use of renewable sources of energy.
- The state is first in India to start various energy conservation measures such as use of solar water heating systems, compact flourescent lamps at all government offices and use of ISI motor pumps in agriculture.
- It has set up first solar energy complex at Panchkula district.
- Under Lamp Saving Scheme scheme, the Haryana Government provides CFL at highly subsidised rates to below poverty line families.
- The earlier solar policy has been re-defined by providing several investors friendly provisions including single window service.
Innovative Energy Parks
The state is setting up energy parks and solarshops to encourage technical innovations and awareness towards developing energy sources that donot create environmental degradation. In Haryanay 20 solar parks have been set up in 18 districts which are as followed:
|Regional Engineering College||Kurukshetra|
|Sir Choturam State Engineering College||Sonipat|
|College of Agricultural and Technology||Hisar|
|Convent of Jesus and Mary||Ambala Cantt|
|Haryana Institute of Rural Development||Karnal|
|Hansraj Public School||Panchkula|
|Guru Jambeshwar University||Hisar|
|ML Institute of Technology||Yamunanagar|
|Adarsh Mahila Mahavidyalaya||Bhiwani|
|College of Technology and Management||Kaithal|
|Vaisu College of Engeneering||Rohtak|
|Manohar Memorial College||Fatehabad|
Haryana Electricity Regulatory Commission
This topic is going out of Sync, could be covered in box matter. Haryana Government has constituted an independent Haryana Electricity Regulatory Commission (HERC) on 17th August, 1998, under the Haryana Electricity Reforms Act, 1997. Haryana was the second state in India to initiate the process of reform and restructuring of the power sector. Haryana Electricity Reform Act, 1997 was passed by the Haryana State Legislative Assembly on 22nd July, 1997.
After receiving the Presidential assent on 20th February, 1998, this Act came into force on 14th August, 1998. The Haryana State Electricity Board was unbundled into two corporate bodies namely Haryana Power Generation Company Limited (HPGCL) for the generation of power established on 17th March, 1997 and Haryana Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Limited (HVPNL) established on 1st July, 1999 for the transmission and distribution of power within the state of Haryana.
The activity of distribution and retail supply of power was entrusted to Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Limited (UHB VNL) for North circles (Ambala, Yamunanagar, Kaithal, Panchkula, Kurukshetra, Karnal, Panipat, Sonipat, Rohtak, Jind and Jhajjar) of Haryana and Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Limited (DHBVNL) for South circles (Bhiwani, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Mahendragarh, Rewari, Hisar, Sirsa, Fatehabad and Mewat).
Irrigation in Haryana
Haryana has an extensive irrigation network consisting of many main canals having length of 1500 km. Around 5672 hectares of land is irrigated in Haryana. District with largest irrigation facilities is Sirsa while lowest is in Panchkula. Around 48% of the irrigation in the state is done through canal irrigation. Total number of major and minor canals in the state are 1429 (approx).
Next major source of irrigation is tubewells. Water sprinklers are installed to irrigate the fields specially in the dry regions of the state. The dry sandy districts of Haryana like Mahendragarh, Hisar, Bhiwani, Sirsa uses canal irrigation. The head office of Irrigation Department of Haryana is set up at Panchkula. The cultivation in the state is done through extensive irrigation networks.
The states canal system consists of two major water systems, the Western Yamuna Canal System and the Bhakra Canal System. Further, Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL) canal is being constructed in the state to divert the waters of Ravi and Beas rivers. The main canal projects of Haryana are as follows:
The Western Yamuna Canal Project It takes off from the right bank of the Yamuna at Tajewala. It was built by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. The total length of the canal along with its distributaries is 3200 km and it irrigates about 4 lakh hectares in Ambala, Kurukshetra, Karnal, Panipat, Rohtak, Hisar, Sirsa and Jind districts. Its important branches are the Delhi, the Hansi and the Sirsa branch.
Bhakra Canal Project The Bhakra canal enters Haryana near Tohana and irrigates large parts of Hisar, Rohtak and Sirsa districts. Its main branches are the the Ratia, the Rori, the Barwala and the Tohana branch.
Gurgaon Canal Project It takes off from the Yamuna at Okhla in Delhi. It was started in 1970. This canal irrigates 1.2 lakh hectare in Gurgaon and Faridabad districts.
Jui Canal Project This is a lift irrigation scheme designed to irrigate the semi-desert region of Bhiwani and adjoining areas. This 170 km long canal irrigates about 32 thousand hectare of land.
Multi-Purpose Irrigation Projects
Some multi-purpose projects in the state are as follows:
Tajewala Barrage It is a barrage across the Yamuna river, located in Yamunanagar district in the State of Haryana, India. It was completed in 1873. It regulated the flow of the Yamuna for irrigation in Uttar Pradesh and Haryana through two canals originating at this place namely Western Yamuna Canal and Eastern Yamuna Canal. In 1999, the Hathnikund Barrage was completed to replace the Tajewala Barrage. JawaharlalNehru Irrigation Project This irrigation project is built along the Bhakra canal. This project was first initiated in 1976. It irrigates the agricultural land areas in Mahendragarh and Bhiwani districts.
Hathnikund Barrage It is a concrete barrage located on the Yamuna river in Yamunanagar, district of Haryana State, India. It was constructed between October, 1996 and June, 1999 for the purpose of irrigation. The barrage diverts water into the Western and Eastern Yamuna canals. The small reservoir created by the barrage also serves as a wetland for 31 species ofwaterbird.
Ottu Barrage It is also known as Ottu Head. It is a masonry weir or low head dam on the Ghaggar-Hakra river in Haryana that creates a large water reservoir out of the formerly-small Dhanur lake, located near the village of Ottu in Sirsa district. It is a feeder for two Ghaggar canals (the Northern Ghaggar canal and the Southern Ghaggar canal) that carry irrigation water to Northern Rajasthan State. In 2002, a new tourist complex was inaugurated at the barrage and it was given the honorary name of Chaudhary Devi Lai Weir to commemorate the former Chief Minister of Haryana, Chaudhary Devi Lai. The Dhanur lake reservoir is now often referred to simply as the Ottu reservoir.
Bhiwani Lift Irrigation Project It irrigates about 1 lakh hectares of land in Bhiwani district. It is also known s Virendra Narayan Chakravarti project.
Other Irrigation Projects
Other canal projects running in the state are:
|Irrigation Projects||Irrigation Areas|
|Narwana Lift Irrigation Project||Jind|
|Nangal Lift Irrigation Project||Ambala|
|Loharu Lift Irrigation Project (also known as Indira Gandhi Canal Project)||Bhiwani, Mahendragarh and Jhajjar|
|Mewat Canal Irrigation Project||Mewat|
|Dadupur Nalvi Canal Irrigation Project||Yamunanagar, Ambala and Kurukshetra|
Region-Wise Irrigation System in Haryana
Irrigation in North-Eastern Region
The North-Eastern parts include the plains of Ambala and the Shivalik hills. Rainfall occurs in good quantities in this area. The plains of this region are fertile. Rainfall irrigates the fields in most of the areas of this region. After the construction of Nangal Lift Irrigation Scheme, canal irrigation was made possible in Ambala district. With this scheme, nearly 45500 acre of land (of 75 villages) have started receiving canal waters for the purpose of irrigation.
Irrigation in the Central Region
The central region of the state comprises Kurukshetra, Karnal, Jind, Rohtak, Panipat and Sonipat districts. Rainfall occurs in adequate quantities in these districts. Maize and paddy are grown here, because these crops need large volumes of water. Rabi crops are grown with the help of tubewells, wells and canals.
Irrigation in the South-Eastern Region
This area comprises the districts of Gurgaon and Faridabad. Rainfall is less than normal in this area. The major crops of this region are maize, barley, millet, oat, wheat and gram. These crops are irrigated by canals and tubewells.
Irrigation in the Sandy Region
This region comprises the districts of Hisar, Sirsa, Mahendragarh and Bhiwani. Rainfall is almost nil in this area. Main crops of the region are barley, millet, gram, maize and wheat. Tubewells and water sprinklers are used to irrigate the fields.
Government Initiatives for Development of Irrigation
- Under Integrated Micro Irrigation Scheme, 14 different canal outlets are selected in 13 districts where solar energy based micro irrigation schemes are implemented. This scheme is undertaken by HAREDA from 2018.
- Lift Irrigation Project Scheme is started in the districts of Mewat (Nuh), Gurugram, Rewari to provide access to dry and rocky regions of Aravalli hill areas that lie in this region.
- Under Agra Canal Scheme, the state has undertaken the managment of Agra canal in order to improve the irrigation facilities in the Mewat region.
- Four dams are under construction on river Ghaggar and its tributaries in the state to ensure optimum utilisation of water and its conservation in view of growing demand for water. One of the dam called Koshalya dam will be constructed on river Koshalya, opposite HMT complex in Pinjore in Panchkula district. The other three dams would be constructed at Diwanwala, Dangrana and Chhamla.