CHAPTER :ART AND CRAFTS OF HARYANA
The Arts and Crofts of Haryana reflect its rich cultural heritage in India. The state has a large variety of arts and crafts which contain different styles and uniqueness.
The arts and crafts of Haryana provide livelihood to a number of people who mainly belong to rural areas. Important arts and crafts of the state are paintings, sculptures pottery, embroidery, wood work, ornaments, weaving and so on.
Architecture in Haryana
The Archeological Survey of India has conserved about 23 monuments in Haryana. The architecture of Haryana has been divided into Ancient, Medieval and British period.
Some examples of ancient architectures are as follows:
- The oldest mansion (Haveli) of the state is found in Fatehabad district in Haryana which is built under ancient period.
- Nar-Narayana cave is found in Yamunanagar which is the best example of the ancient period architecture in Haryana.
- The state has about 10 famous forts, out of which 3 forts have been mentioned in Nakul Digvijay. Some important forts are Kama fort which is situated in Thanesar and Sohna fort which is situated in Karnal. These forts are built in ancient period.
Some examples of architecture in medieval period are as follows:
- Gujari Palace in Hisar, Jal Mahal palace in Narnaul and Buria Rang Mahal palace in Ambala are very famous examples of medieval architecture in Haryana.
- The tomb and dome of Razia Sultana, the first woman ruler of India are another examples of medieval architecture. These are located in Kaithal.
- Gopal giri fort is located on the border of Delhi-Gurugram which was founded in Medieval period. It was built by Balban.
- Chaneti stupa is one of the oldest religious buildings in Haryana which is the best example of medieval architecture in Haryana. Its architetural style is of Akbari style. Its decoration, especially of ceiling is based on the style of a Rajput Palace.
Architecture During British Period or Modern Architecture
Many towns and edifices have been found in this period on the basis of modern technique. Some example of architecture during British period are as follows :
- Karnal is the first in Haryana which is formed on a pre-planned and modern technique or architecture
- In 1806 AD, the British set up many military camps and barracks in Karnal in Haryana which are examples of modern architecture.
- The state has Octor Loni House and Adams House. Both of these buildings represent an example of the Indo-European architectural style of modern period.
Paintings in Haryana
Art of painting in Haryana flourished during the Gupta Period (5th and 6th century). The ancient cities of Banawali (Fathehabad) and Mitathal (Bhiwani) were the main centre of paintings. Though there is no cave paintings have been found in Haryana of prehistoric period, but many evidences of paintings of Indus Valley Civilisation have been found in the state. The earthenware of this period had been found which was painted with black and white colours, alongwith designs of that period. The paintings of Haryana in different times, like Indus Valley Civilisation Period, Vedic Period, Medieval period and Modern period, have their own significance.
The significance of the paintings of these periods is discussed below.
Paintings of Indus Valley Civilisation Paintings of this period are the best examples of different emotions and feelings. Many paintings with criss-crossed lines have been found on earthenwares at Mitathal and Banawali. These earthenwares have been decorated with pictures of flower-petals.
Paintings of Vedic Period Paintings of this period were emotionless and done with unskilled way. The progress of painting was started during later Vedic period. During 7th century Harsha Vardhan was a skilled painter, who had many good painters also in his court.
After Harshas death, painting flourished for a while under the Rajputs. But the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate put an end to this. The Sultans had no love for art. The Mughal empire was different, art reached its zenith during this time. Jahangir was a patron of art, during his time persian painting style was mixed with Indian style.
Paintings of Medieval Period The development of painting was also seen in this period.
Paintings of Modern Period During first half of the 18 th century painting was flourished in Haryana by ‘Rao of Rewari’. This painting of Rewari was not the original painting of Haryana but was a branch of Rajasthani painting. Paintings of Rewari were associated with the paintings of Lord Krishna, which were flourished in the region.
Different Styles of Paintings in Haryana
Haryana has various styles of painting which developed in 2500 BC. The major style of paintings in Haryana are as follows :
Rajput Style of Paintings
This style developed during the Rajput reign in Haryana. These paintings depict the great epic of Ramayana. Maharaja Tej Singh palace in Mirpur (Gurugram) is an example of Rajput style of painting. Matru Mad ki Piao is a Rajput style of painting famous in Gurugram, which is based on mythological subjects.
The paintings like Asthal Bohar’ are also available in the style of Rajput. The influence of this style of paintings can be seen in the temples of Lord Shiva at Panchkula and also at the Pinjore, Pabnama and Kaithal temples, at Kaul temple of Venumadhava, at Sirsa temple of Sarsainth and at Kilayat temple of Kapil.
Mural Style of Paintings
This style is made on the walls or ceilings. This style is famous in Haryana. Queen Rani Chand Kaur’s Haveli, the Lord Ram Radhas temple, Baba Naths temple at Pehowa and Bhadra Kali temple in Kurukshetra, have the presence of mural paintings. Similar mural paintings can be seen in the other temples and at religious Hindu locations in the whole of Haryana state.
Mughal Style of Paintings
This style evolved from the Persian school of miniature painting with Hindu, Buddhist and Jain influences. These painting evolved during the rule of various Mughal Emperors in India. This style is also famous in Haryana. Its influence can be seen in temples of Rohtak and Kaithal.
The Mughal paintings are dominated by use of green, red, pink, blue and orange colours, which are decorated by pictures of flowers and birds. The paintings which are available in the Rohtak temples are now kept in Kurukshetra University.
Sculptures in Haryana
Sculpture i.e. making of statue and idols is another form of art practised in Haryana. It is mainly found in Northern and Central region of Haryana. Sculptures are made by carving rocks and sand stone. The Lord Vishnus idol at Kurukshetra is a marvelous example of stone carving, which has four arms which are very elegantly reclining over the Anantnag with several faces of snake. According to researchers, this stone piece was created in the 10th century. Besides the images of Hindu Goddess and Gods, there are also some images of the Jain deities from Pratihara period (9th century) which have been found at Pinjore, Jind, Sirsa, Khokarakot (Rohtak), Asthal Bohar, Satkumbha (Sonipat), Mohanbari (Jhajjar), Nagram and Somerwala (Hisar) in the state.
Buddhist sculptures have also been found at Gurugram, Rohtak, Mohanbadi, Kurukshetra and Jhanswa (Jhajjar). Images of Sun God have been discovered from Hansi (Hisar), Tosham (Bhiwani) and on Sun pillars at Ameen (Kurukshetra).
Some other examples of sculptures in Haryana are as follows :
- The oldest sculptures found in Haryana are Yaksha and Yakshis. These have been discovered in Hathin (Palwal), Bhadas (Mewat) and Mehrauli (Faridabad).
- Red Sandstone Sculptures have been found in Sondh, (Gurugram), Sangel (Mewat) and Khokarakot (Rohtak).
- Two sculpture of Lord Shiva have been found at Barwala (Hisar) and Aurangabad (Palwal).
- Sandstone sculptures of Mahishasura mardini and Anantsayi Vishnu have been found at Bhiwani and Sonipat, respectively.
Crafts of Haryana
Crafts of Haryana are very famous which are also exported all over the world. Its craft is one of the major modes of income for the rural people of the state. Some of the important crafts of Haryana are discussed below :
Embroidery and Textile Works
Embroidery and textile work of Haryana are discussed bellows:
The identity of Haryana is Phulkari. The meaning of Phulkari is work of flower and this craft is very much demanded and famous in Haryana. The Phulkari shawl is similar to Kashmiri shawls. The uniqueness of this fabulous shawl is the designer warmness, bright colour shades, variety of patterns and attractiveness. This shawl requires much hard work and the hard work reflects in this shawl.
On the Phulkari shawls, the rural women make designs of different types of birds, human figures, fill the background by red colour and flowers and all these shapes and patterns are stitched on the background fabric. For the background fabric, they use Khaddar and marvelous textures.
The artisans of this Phulkari shawl use very elegant and simple stitching style and they do it from the back side of the shawl by using the silky threads. The Phulkari shawls are made by the rural women of Haryana.
Another form of shawl popular in Haryana is called as ‘Bagh\ The Bagh shawl is totally designed by using the intricate embroidery work. The designs used on the Bagh shawls are always inspired by the pattern of geometry. Green colour is mostly used because it is mainly done by Muslims. Khaddar and silk threads are used to complete embroidery work.
Another style of shawl manufactured by Haryana artisans is ‘Chope’. It is more simple as compared to Phulkari and Bagh shawls. This fabric is gifted to a newly married bride by the grooms grandmother.
Dharshan Dwar Shawl
The religious shawl is called as darshan dwar. It is usually used by the devotees as gift to the temple. To pray the God, devotees dedicate this shawl to the idol of the God.
The durries are very common in the state, but these contain very dynamic designs which give a grace to the whole rug. The Jat community of Haryana state is very well-known because of durries as it is manufactured by them.
They use the designs like white colour triangles, opposite to the background of blue colour. This unique style of design makes durries very nice and beautiful. Panipat is the ‘hub of making durries’in Haryana. Its adjacent areas also manufactured durries.
Karnal is very popular location of the robes of bright colour and also the lungi. Lungi is the long piece of fabric, which is worn by men. It is short like skirt. It is mainly a rural dress.
Leather-based foot wear (Juttis) of intricate designs crafted with copper, silver and silk threads and delicate work of mirrors, beads and other accessories are very famous for formal and informal wear in Haryana. Rewari, Karnal, Jhajjar and Hisar are famous for Zari juttis and Rohtak for leather work.
In metal work, brass sheets are used to make kitchen utensils. These utensils are a part of brides wedding gifts. Metal work is mainly done in Gurugram and Rewari districts of Haryana.
Jewellery of silver, bone and lac, crafted with filigree and decorative work is very famous in Haryana. The jewellery is made in traditional and folk designs and is very popular among urban and rural folks. Silver belts made with stiff broad bands, which are flattened and twisted are very famous in the state. Gurugram and Sirsa are important places of jewellery making in Haryana. Mahendragarh is famous for lac bangles.
Pidi or Footstool Craft
The craftsmen of Haryana are famous for the low stool or ‘Pidi’whose seat is made with strands of thread twined to form different kinds of coloured patterns. The thickness of the thread varies according to the size of the article, for instance, thick twine is needed for making a bed or charpai. Famous patterns like ‘Pacchisf (design of the game of dice), ‘Giani Chor ka Chatta (maze consisting of a secret passage made by the thief Giani) are woven intricately. The reverse side of the Pidi has a different design.
Pottery is a rural craft in Haryana. In the state the, kick-operated type of potters wheel is commonly used for making this craft which is operated by foot instead of hand. The work of making pottery is mostly done by the females. Important pottery crafts are toys, utensils, decorative pieces and terracotta items. Rewari, Jhajjar, Pinjore and Bahadurgarh are famous for their pottery.
Jhajjar is famous for Surahi, a slim-necked pitcher. Cups, plates, water vessels, pipe bowls, etc are made in Rohtak. Terracotta items are produce in Gurugram, Jhajjar, Faridabad and Kurukshetra districts of Haryana.
Toy Making Craft
Dolls of Haryana are very famous as the state shares the rural image through these dolls. The height of these dolls ranges from 6 inches to 32 inches. Artisans of Haryana make images of Sita and Ram and decorate these with proper costumes and jewellery. Bright coloured wooden are very famous in the state. Gurgaon and Faridabad are important centres of toy making.
Women artisans of Haryana make beautiful hand fans, (also known as Kundaladar Pakkhi), Chairs (Moorras), mats and stools by Sarkanda or cane strips. These are first dried and twisted to form designs and then painted with natural and chemical dyes.
Bamboo sheets are used as curtains in summer season which reduce the reflection of sunlight. Modhas (low stools) is also very famous wood work Changeri craft (basket with lids) is mainly done by women folk, who use wheat grass then twisted it and coloured it to form beautiful baskets, dressing table, mats and other items. Bhiwani, Mahendragarh, Rohtak and Panchkula are important centres of wood work.
Craft Cluster Division of Haryana
|Name of Districts||Craft Cluster||Craft|
|Gurugram||Firozpur, Jhirka, Pataudi Farrukhnagar||Terracotta, Metal jewellery, Mudah making|
|Rewari||Kaisthwada Rampura Qutabpur||Brass Metal Zari Jutti|
|Jhajjar||Bahadurgarh Jhajjar||Sandalwood Carving Terracotta|
|Faridabad||Badkhal Palwal Hodal||Terracotta, Basketry, Bone carving|
|Sonepat||Farmana||Zari Jutti, Peedha making|
|Ambala||Barara, Akbarpur, Racheri||Crochet, embroidery, Purja Durries|
|Bhiwani||Dinod Biran Halawas Nandha||Wooden beads, Mudha making|
|Chandigarh||–||Embroidery, Pot painting|
|Kurukshetra||–||Terracotta, Peeda making|
|Hissar||Shanti Nagar Bigher||Zari jutti Punja durries|
|Sirsa||–||Jewellery, Pot painting|
|Mahendragarh||Narnaul Talot||Lac Bangles, woodcraft|
|Rohtak||–||Leather and woodwork|